Correcting for unreliability and partial invariance: A two-stage path analysis approach

Obtaining reliability for daily diary data using multilevel factor analysis

Composite reliability of multilevel data: It's about observed scores and construct meanings

This article shows that the previously proposed between-level composite reliability can provide overly optimistic reliability coefficient because it ignores one major source of error, namely the sampling error of cluster means. To obtain more accurate reliability information for multilevel data, this article proposes alternative reliability indices that correctly account for the different sources of measurement error.